Taqwim al-adilla 3: Rational and Sacred Proofs

This section functions as an addendum to the previous section – which presente four types of proof (ḥujaj) – and as an introduction to the following sections – which present the sacred proofs (ḥujaj sharʿiyya) that lead to necessary knowledge.

The focus of the section is to highlight that the proofs that concern us in this book are not just sacred but also rational. He argues for the importance of rational proofs in two ways. The first is that sacred proofs are only known to be such by the inference of the intellect – namely, that a person claiming to be a prophet who is aided by God with a miracle (muʿjiza) must truly be a prophet and thus speak the truth in what he conveys from God. The second angle for considering rational proofs is fascinating. He states that we see those who do not know sacred proofs still being guided to worldly advantages – and therefore to good conduct – purely by the inference of their intellects. The intellects ability to discern good conduct appears later in the book. Finally, he highlights that the knowledge acquired from both rational and sacred proofs may be necessary or probabilistic.


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