Taqwim al-adilla 2: Types of Proof


In this second section of this exposition of Ḥanafī legal theory, the author describes the four types of proof (ḥujja) that a person must approach to arrive at sacred legal injunctions: al-āya (‘the clear proof), al-dalīl (‘the articulate guide), al-ʿilla (‘the cause), and al-ḥāl (‘the presumed state’). For each of these, he presents linguistic and technical explanations. He negates the existence of a natural sacred law that obligates without obligation from the Creator. He also ties this discussion back to the topic of a human being’s duty to direct their heart to the ḥujaj, so that intellect can overcome lust and a person may be guided.


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